Alexander Yaron

А. И. Ярон

Alexander J. Yaron (1874–1935)

Александр Иванович ЯРОН (1874–1935). Русский текст внизу страницы ⬇

Born in Petersburg province, December 10, 1874. Died in Shanghai, February 18, 1935.

Before coming to Shanghai, Yaron had a fruitful career in Estonia; several of his military and public buildings still grace the streets of Tallinn. During that period, "several first and other prizes were won by Mr. Yaron in international competitions for the design of theatres, clubs and other public buildings."

Having joined the White Army as a military engineer, Yaron sailed from Vladivostok with the defeated White Fleet and landed in Shanghai at the end of 1922. In February 1923, he joined the firm of the Spanish architect Abelardo Lafuente and was involved in designing the dining room of the Majestic Hotel. In the same year, he also worked on the new ballroom in the hotel's annex. Following the success of this assignment, Yaron became partner in the firm, renamed Lafuente & Yaron. In 1924, Yaron designed Linda Terrace on Avenue Joffre – one of the earliest lane compounds in the central French Concession, which marked the beginning of the Russian tenancy in that area. Around the same year, he designed another terrace compound on Avenue Joffre and the residence of Mr. Ramos.

In 1925–1926, as part of Lafuente & Yaron, he "worked on the design of several churches for the interior of China, a cathedral for Foochow, two apartment buildings, the Kincheng Banking Corporation on Kiangse Road, and several other buildings," including an early design of the "hai-alai auditorium in the Italian renaissance style" (unrealized). The firm created plans for the restoration of Shanghai's Kalee Hotel and Canton's Hotel Shameen. Altogether, by his own statement, between 1924 and 1927, A. J. Yaron created 14 buildings and supervised the construction of some of them. Yaron's son, also named Alexander, was an employee of the firm too.

In early 1927, Lafuente left for the USA, taking with him the project of a large beach hotel, which became Yaron's last work for the firm. In May 1928, Yaron branched out on his own under the name A. J. Yaron 协隆洋行. That year, he designed two residences for Chinese officials and a large godown (warehouse) on East Broadway for the firm of D. G. M. Aronovsky. He also built a complex of villas on Rue Bourgeat, one of which served as his residence and before he donated it to St. Tichon's Orphanage.

In June 1930, the Recoletos Procuration moved into their new premises at 6 Rue Moliere, designed by Yaron in the Spanish style, while another Spanish Catholic mission – the Augustinian Procuration – received new headquarters on Avenue Road. In the same year, Yaron designed the Bishop Apartments for the Russian clergy on Route Lorton, with a temporary church and a bell tower, and began supervising the construction of the Russian Orthodox St. Nicholas Church on Rue Corneille.

Yaron's final work was the Ministry of Communications in Nanking, which he had designed ten years prior and which took 4 years to build. The building was finished in October 1934 and called "the largest and the most magnificent building in the capital." "The ornate structure, which has a frontage of 400 feet on Chungshan Road and which cost $2,500,000, with its Chinese style facades and tinted pale green roof made a splendid addition to the Government row in the capital." Its destruction in 1937, during the Japanese armed invasion of Nanking, was lamented as "an architectural tragedy."

Yaron favored neoclassicism and despised eclectic and modernist styles. None of his buildings are in the art deco style popular in the 1930s. Modernist buildings commonly ascribed to him – Petain Apartments (1928) and Washington Apartments (1932) – were designed by the staff architects of the Fonciere d'Extreme Orient, while the West Park Mansions (1926) was the project of the Palmer & Turner.

Yaron's son John (Ivan) (b. 1903) trained as an architect and worked with his father, representing A. J. Yaron's firm in Nanking in 1932–1935; in 1958 he moved to Brazil.

Dining Room of the Majestic Hotel

1923

Ballroom of the majestic Hotel

1924

linda Terrace, Avenue Joffre

1924

Ramos residence, Darroch Road

1924

Kincheng Bank, Kiangse Road

1925

Arabic Mosque, Chekiang Road

1925 (unrealized)

Catholic Cathedral, Foochow

1925 (unrealized)

Apartments, Bubbling Well Road

1926 (unrealized?)

Central Mansions, Bubbling Well Road

1926

Beach Hotel, San Francisco

1927 (unrealized)

Aronovsky godown, East Broadway

1928

Hai-Alai Auditorium, Avenue du Roi albert

1929 (unrealized)

Villas, Rue Bourgeat

c. 1931

wang boqun's residence

1931

recoletos Procuration, Rue Moliere

1932

Augustinian Procuration, Avenue Road

1930

bishop Apartments, Route Paul Henri

1932

st. Nicholas church, Rue Corneille

1934

Ministry of Communications, Nanking

1934; destroyed 1937

Known works by A. J. Yaron

  • Dining room, Majestic Hotel, Majestic Road (1923) – demolished in 1935

  • Ballroom, Majestic Hotel, Majestic Road (1924) – demolished in 1935

  • Ramos residence, Darroch Road (1924), now 250 Duolun Road 多伦路250号

  • Linda Terrace, 833 Avenue Joffre (1924), now 人民坊, 833 Middle Huaihai Road 淮海中路833弄

  • 20-house terrace for Albert Cohen, Avenue Joffre (c. 1924) – location being confirmed

  • Residence for Antonio Ramos (c. 1924) – location being confirmed

  • Arabic mosque, 70 Chekiang Road (1925) – unrealized

  • Catholic cathedral for the Dominican order, Foochow (1925) – location being confirmed

  • Church for Augustinian Recoletos, Henan province (1925) – location being confirmed

  • Kincheng Bank 金城银行, 22 Kiangse Road (1925), now 200 Middle Jiangxi Road 江西中路200号

  • Central Mansions 中央公寓, 151C Bubbling Well Road (1926), now 931 West Nanjing Road 南京西路931号

  • Hai-Alai Auditorium, Avenue du Roi Albert (1926) – unrealized

  • Beach hotel for San Francisco (1927) – unrealized

  • D. G. M. Aronovsky Godown, East Broadway (1929), now 687 Dongdaming Road 东大名路687号

  • Augustinian Procuration, No. 2 Lane 1220 Avenue Road (1930), now No. 2 Lane 1220 West Beijing Road 北京西路1220弄2号

  • Residence for Wang Boqun, Yu Yuen Road (1931), now No. 31 Lane 1136 Yuyuan Road 愚园路1136弄31号

  • Yaron's own residence and other villas, 770–788 Rue Bourgeat (c. 1931), the surviving houses are No. 784, 786 and 788 Changle Road, 长乐路784号, 786号, 788号.

  • Recoletos Procuration, 6 Rue Moliere (1930), now 6 Xiangshan Road 香山路6号

  • Bishop Apartments, 55A Route Paul Henry (1932), now 55A Xinle Road 新乐路55A号

  • St. Nicholas Orthodox Church, 18 Rue Corneille (1934), now 16 Gaolan Road 皋兰路16号

  • Ministry of Communications in Nanking, 303 Chungshan Road (1934), 南京市中山北路303号 – destroyed in 1937

Александр Иванович ЯРОН (1874–1935) – нажмите, чтобы прочитать

Биография составляется.

Цитата из Левошко С. С.: "Всеобъемлющи комментарии творческого метода архитектора А. И. Ярона, признанного мастера интернационального Шанхая 1920– 1930-х гг., сделанные литератором, общественным деятелем и другом зодчего И. И. Куниным. По его словам, «Ярон в своем архитектурном искусстве был безусловный „классик“. Но назвать его традиционалистом, консерватором — неверно. Его проекты зачастую были по-настоящему смелы и неожиданны, хотя теоретически всякое уклонение в послевоенное „новаторство“ он вполне определенно рассматривал как отсутствие настоящего профессионального образования и незнание архитектурных форм. Архитектурный аскетизм начала ХХ века расценивал как игнорирование художественной стороны проекта». В то же время архитектор «резко осуждал беспринципное заимствование „кусочками“ из каждого стиля и их механическое смешение. А. И. с необычайной выразительностью высмеивал т. н. „лоскутную архитектуру“ с ее нагромождением декоративных элементов вне гармонической связи с самими сооружением и его конструктивными основами».

Sources:

  • "К пятидесятилетию со дня кончины..." Русская жизнь, 16 февраля 1985 года

  • "Тяжелая потеря Шанхая", журнал "Рубеж", 1935 год

  • Álvaro Leonardo Pérez (2019), Abelardo Lafuente García-Rojo (1871-1931), un arquitecto español en China (Madrid: Universidad Alcalá de Henares, PhD thesis)

  • China Press, Shanghai Sunday Times, NCDN, Hong directories,

Newspaper announcement of the construction of Recoletos mission building, at today's 6 Xiangshan Road 香山路6号 (Yaron; 1930). Shanghai Sunday Times, Dec 1932
Former Recoletos mission building, at today's 6 Xiangshan Road 香山路6号 (Yaron; 1930). https://www.instagram.com/shanghaiheritage/
Watercolor-tinted perspective drawing of St Nicholas Church, executed by P. F. Fedorovsky for A. J. Yaron. © Museum of Russian Culture, San Francisco